The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out reviews of the
neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and clothianidin in order
to assess the possible risks posed by these systemic insecticides to bees. The use of
neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments and granules applied to soil is
known to lead to these chemicals being present in the guttation fluid of
various crop plants. Although the literature on this subject is sparse, the
research carried out to date indicates that the neonicotinoids may be present
at high concentrations. .
A report by Greenpeace
titled ‘Dripping Poison’ investigates
this phenomenon further, Greenpeace undertook a study of guttation fluid
produced by maize plants grown in field conditions in Hungary.